Link per la Genetica e la Genomica Umana in generale

Banche dati dell'NCBI
Ricerca trasversale su molte diverse banche dati di interesse biomedico,
tra cui la banca dati bibliografica PubMed

Risorse riservate all'Ateneo di Bologna: come accedere, a seconda del programma che usate per Internet

Complessità del genoma
Manuale d'uso della FIAT 500
Apollo Operations Handbook, Lunar Module, Subsystems Data (part of the documentation)

Mappe del genoma
NCBI Map Viewer (human)
UCSC Genome Browser
Sanger-EBI Ensembl
Progetto HapMap
GOLD, Genomes OnLine Database
The Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) Research program

Banche dati di geni
Nucleotide / GenBank
OMIM - Search (contiene dati sui caratteri umani che hanno base genetica e sui relativi geni)

Banche dati di RNA non codificanti per proteine
Noncoding RNA database  
miRBase (miRNA Database)  
Long noncoding RNA
Genomic tRNA database   

Banca dati di pseudogeni

Banche dati di marcatori genomici
Sequence Tagged Site (STS) database
Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) database

Banca dati di sequenze ripetute

Software per il confronto di sequenze

Banca dati sul DNA mitocondriale

Progetto ENCODE
ENCODE Project
ENCODE Explorer

Premio Nobel  - Lezioni magistrali

Albert Szent-Györgyi, Fisiologia o Medicina, 11 Dicembre 1937.
Oxidation, Energy Transfer, and Vitamins.

Frederick Sanger, Chimica, 8 Dicembre 1980.
Determination of Nucleotide Sequences in DNA.

Barbara McClintock, Fisiologia o Medicina, 8 Dicembre 1983.
The Significance of Responses of the Genome to Challenge.

Kary B. Mullis, Chimica, 8 Dicembre 1993.
The Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Richard Axel, Fisiologia o Medicina, 8 Dicembre 2004.
Scents and Sensibility: A Molecular Logic of Olfactory Perception.

Andrew Fire e Craig Mello, Fisiologia o Medicina, 8 Dicembre 2006.
Andrew Fire: Gene Silencing by Double-Stranded RNA.
Craig Mello: RNAi and Development in C. Elegans.

Riferimenti bibliografici on line


Situs viscerum inversus


Bainard JD, Gregory TR. Genome size evolution: patterns, mechanisms, and methodological advances. Genome 56:vii-viii, 2013.

Lejeune J. Testimony before the louisiana legislature. June 7, 1990.

Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. bioRxiv 2016.

Shannon CE. A Mathematical Theory  of  Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal 27:379-423, 1948.

Watson JD, Crick FH. Molecular structure of nucleic acids; a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 171:737-738, 1953.

Struttura del DNA


HBB Gene

HBB mRNA NM_000518

HBB Protein

Approfondimento sulla Bioinformatica

Beadle GW, Tatum EL. Genetic Control of Biochemical Reactions in Neurospora. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 27:499-506, 1941.

Gelbart WM. Databases in genomic research. Science 282:659-661, 1998.

Gerstein MB, Bruce C, Rozowsky JS, Zheng D, Du J, Korbel JO, Emanuelsson O, Zhang ZD, Weissman S, Snyder M. What is a gene, post-ENCODE? History and updated definition. Genome Res 17:669-681, 2007.

Hershey AD. An upper limit to the protein content of the germinal substance of bacteriophage T2. Virology 1:108-127, 1955.

Johannsen, W. Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre, Jena, 1909 citato da Nils Roll-Hansen. The crucial experiment of Wilhelm Johannsen. Biol Philos 4:303-329, 1989.

Kozak M. Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene 234:187–208, 1999.

Nirenberg M, Leder P, Bernfield M, Brimacombe R, Trupin J, Rottman F, O'Neal C. RNA codewords and protein synthesis, VII. On the general nature of the RNA code. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 53:1161-1168, 1965.

Söll D, Ohtsuka E, Jones DS, Lohrmann R, Hayatsu H, Nishimura S, Khorana HG. Studies on polynucleotides, XLIX. Stimulation of the binding of aminoacyl-sRNA's to ribosomes by ribotrinucleotides and a survey of codon assignments for 20 amino acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 54:1378-1385, 1965.

Watson JD, Crick FH. Genetical implications of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature 171:964-967, 1953.


Nature Human Genome Collection


Map Viewer

100.000 Genomes Project

Andreu-Ballester JC, Colomer RE, Millán Scheiding M, Ballester F. Tonsillectomy and risk of acute appendicitis. Am J Gastroenterol 98:2806-2807, 2003.

Andreu-Ballester JC, Pérez-Griera J, Ballester F, Colomer-Rubio E, Ortiz-Tarín I, Peñarroja Otero C. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) deficiency in serum of patients with GALTectomy (appendectomy and tonsillectomy). Clin Immunol 123:289-297, 2007.

Bianconi E, Piovesan A, Facchin F, Beraudi A, Casadei R, Frabetti F, Vitale L, Pelleri MC, Tassani S, Piva F, Perez-Amodio S, Strippoli P, Canaider S. An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann Hum Biol 40:463-471, 2013.

Campillo-Balderas, Lazcano A, Becerra A. Viral genome size distribution does not correlate with the antiquity of the host lineages. Front Ecol Evol, 2015.

Cavelier L, Johannisson A, Gyllensten U. Analysis of mtDNA copy number and composition of single mitochondrial particles using flow cytometry and PCR. Exp Cell Res 259:79-85, 2000.

Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature 437:69-87, 2005.

Eddy SR. The C-value paradox, junk DNA and ENCODE. Curr Biol 22:R898-899, 2012.

Elliott TA, Gregory TR. What's in a genome? The C-value enigma and the evolution of eukaryotic genome content. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 370:20140331, 2015.

Feuk L, Carson AR, Scherer SW. Structural variation in the human genome. Nat Rev Genet 7:85-97, 2006.

Fire A, Xu S, Montgomery MK, Kostas SA, Driver SE, Mello CC. Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 391:806-811, 1998.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409:860-921, 2001.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. Nature 431:931-945, 2004.

Land M, Hauser L, Jun SR, Nookaew I, Leuze MR, Ahn TH, Karpinets T, Lund O, Kora G, Wassenaar T, et al. Insights from 20 years of bacterial genome sequencing. Funct Integr Genomics 15:141-161, 2015.

Levy S, Sutton G, Ng PC, Feuk L, Halpern AL, Walenz BP, Axelrod N, Huang J, Kirkness EF, Denisov G, Lin Y, Macdonald JR et al. The Diploid Genome Sequence of an Individual Human. PLoS Biol 5:e254, 2007.

Mattick JS, Igor V. Makunin IV. Non-coding RNA. Hum Mol Genet 15:R17-R29, 2006.

Mohanta TK, Bae H. The diversity of fungal genome. Biol Proced Online 17:8, 2015.

Piovesan A, Caracausi M, Ricci M, Strippoli P, Vitale L, Pelleri MC. Identification of minimal eukaryotic introns through GeneBase, a user-friendly tool for parsing the NCBI Gene databank. DNA Res 22:495-503.

Piovesan A, Caracausi M, Antonaros F, Pelleri MC, Vitale L. GeneBase 1.1: a tool to summarize data from NCBI gene datasets and its application to an update of human gene statistics. Database (Oxford), 2016. doi: 10.1093/database/baw153


Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. PLoS Biol 14:e1002533, 2016.

Strippoli P, Canaider S, Noferini F, D'Addabbo P, Vitale L, Facchin F, Lenzi L, Casadei R, Carinci P, Zannotti M, Frabetti F. Uncertainty principle of genetic information in a living cell. Theor Biol Med Model 2:40, 2005.

Sudmant PH, Rausch T, Gardner EJ, Handsaker RE, Abyzov A, Huddleston J, Zhang Y, Ye K, Jun G, Hsi-Yang Fritz M, et al. An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes. Nature 526:75–81, 2015.

Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, Li PW, Mural RJ, Sutton GG, Smith HO, Yandell M, Evans CA, Holt RA, et al. The sequence of the human genome. Science 291:1304-1351, 2001.


Buck L, Axel R. A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell 65:175-187, 1991.

Gerstein M, Zheng D. The Real Life of Pseudogenes. Sci Am 295:48-55, 2006.
[Tr. it.: La vera vita degli pseudogeni. Le Scienze 458:66-73, Ottobre 2006, Milano].

Hanchate NK, Kondoh K, Lu Z, Kuang D, Ye X, Qiu X, Pachter L, Trapnell C, Buck LB. Single-cell transcriptomics reveals receptor transformations during olfactory neurogenesis. Science 350:1251-125, 2015.
[Commento in:]

Nishikimi M, Fukuyama R, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Yagi K. Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human nonfunctional gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the enzyme for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis missing in man. J Biol Chem 269:13685-13688, 1994.


Singer T, McConnell MJ, Marchetto MC, Coufal NG, Gage FH. LINE-1 retrotransposons: mediators of somatic variation in neuronal genomes? Trends Neurosci 33:345-354, 2010.



Gruppi di cromosomi umani


Ideogrammi dei cromosomi umani

Genome Decoration Page

Mappa fisica dei cromosomi umani

Link per la Citogenica

Caspersson T, Zech L, Johansson C, Modest EJ. Identification of human chromosomes by DNA binding fluorescent agents. Chromosoma 30:215-227, 1970.

Caspersson T, Hultén M, Lindsten J, Therkelsen AJ, Zech L. Identification of different Robertsonian translocations in man by quinacrine mustard fluorescence analysis. Hereditas 67:213-220, 1971.

Martin CL, Warburton D. Detection of Chromosomal Aberrations in Clinical Practice: From Karyotype to Genome Sequence. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 16:309-326, 2015.

Seabright M. A rapid banding technique for human chromosomes. Lancet 2:971-972, 1971.

Smeets DF. Historical prospective of human cytogenetics: from microscope to microarray. Clin Biochem 37:439-446, 2004.

Sumner AT, Evans HJ, Buckland RA. New technique for distinguishing between human chromosomes. Nat New Biol 232:31-32, 1971.

Patterson D, Costa AC. Down syndrome and genetics - a case of linked histories. Nat Rev Genet 6:137-147, 2005.


Storico articolo originale di Mendel disponibile nella traduzione inglese:


OMIM - Banca dati di riferimento per la ricerca delle malattie umane legate a uno o più geni

Nanismo acondroplasico

FGFR3 Gene


Amanvermez R, Tosun M. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests. Int J Fertil Steril 9:411-415, 2016.

Le Merrer M, Rousseau F, Legeai-Mallet L, Landais JC, Pelet A, Bonaventure J, Sanak M, Weissenbach J, Stoll C, Munnich A, et al. A gene for achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia maps to chromosome 4p. Nat Genet 6:318-321, 1994.

Richette P, Bardin T, Stheneur C. Achondroplasia: from genotype to phenotype. Joint Bone Spine 75:125-130, 2008.

Shinde DN, Elmer DP, Calabrese P, Boulanger J, Arnheim N, Tiemann-Boege I. New evidence for positive selection helps explain the paternal age effect observed in achondroplasia. Hum Mol Genet 22:4117-4126, 2013.



TYR Gene

Talassemia beta

Fibrosi cistica



FGFR3 e acondroplasia in OMIM

Gene per la ß-globina

Gene H o FUT1

Fenotipo Bombay

La "Nobel Lecture" "On individual differences in human blood" di Karl Landsteiner,
premio Nobel per la Medicina nel 1930 per la scoperta dei gruppi sanguigni:

Olsson ML, Hill CA, de la Vega H, Liu QP, Stroud MR, Valdinocci J, Moon S, Clausen H, Kruskall MS. Universal red blood cells--enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B antigens. Transfus Clin Biol 11:33-39, 2004.


RHD Gene


Emofilia A e B


SRY Gene

SOX9 Gene

Gene TTY1 in OMIM


SRY Gene

EDA Gene



Gene MECP2 in OMIM

Emofilia B
F9 Gene

Emofilia A
F8 Gene

OPN1MW2 Gene

DMD Gene

Adrenoleucodistrofia e Gene ABCD1 in OMIM

Disteche CM, Berletch JB. X-chromosome inactivation and escape. J Genet 94:591-599, 2015.

Lyon MF. Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse (Mus musculus L.). Nature 190:372-373, 1961.

Migeon BR, Lee CH, Chowdhury AK, Carpenter H. Species differences in TSIX/Tsix reveal the roles of these genes in X-chromosome inactivation. Am J Hum Genet 71:286-293, 2002.

Morgan TH. Sex limited inheritance in Drosophila. Science 32:120-122, 1910.

Rogaev EI, Grigorenko AP, Faskhutdinova G, Kittler EL, Moliaka YK. Genotype analysis identifies the cause of the "royal disease". Science 326:817, 2009.

Senior K. Lorenzo's oil may help to prevent ALD symptoms. Lancet Neurol 1:468, 2002.

Villanova M, Brancalion B, Mehta AD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: life prolongation by noninvasive ventilatory support. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 93:595-599, 2014.


Gene RAD51 in OMIM

Morgan TH. The Contribution of Genetics to Physiology and Medicine. Nobel Lecture, June 4, 1934.
[Bellissimo discorso di accettazione del Premio Nobel per la Fisiologia o Medicina 1933].

Sturtevant AH. The linear arrangement of six sex-linked factors in Drosophila, as shown by their mode of association. J Exp Biol 14:43-59, 1913.
[La storica prima mappa genetica ottenuta da Alfred Henry Sturtevant, allevo di Morgan, osservando i fenotipi risultanti dagli incroci dei moscerini della frutta].

West SC. Molecular views of recombination proteins and their control. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:435-445, 2003.


Sequenza dell'mtDNA


mtDNA Europeo'keeffe_DNA_sequence.htm

Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJ, Staden R, Young IG. Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature 290:457-465, 1981.

Holt IJ, Harding AE, Morgan-Hughes JA. Deletions of muscle mitochondrial DNA in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Nature 331:717-719, 1988.

Kraytsberg Y, Schwartz M, Brown TA, Ebralidse K, Kunz WS, Clayton DA, Vissing J, Khrapko K. Recombination of human mitochondrial DNA. Science 304:981, 2004.

Schwartz M, Vissing J. Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA. N Engl J Med 347:576-580, 2002.

Stone AC, Starrs JE, Stoneking M. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the presumptive remains of Jesse James. J Forensic Sci 46:173-176, 2001.


Sindrome di Rett

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)

Ishida M, Moore GE. The role of imprinted genes in humans. Mol Aspects Med 34:826-840, 2013.

Tierling S, Souren NY, Reither S, Zang KD, Meng-Hentschel J, Leitner D, Oehl-Jaschkowitz B, Walter J. DNA methylation studies on imprinted loci in a male monozygotic twin pair discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Clin Genet 79:546-553, 2011.

Weksberg R, Shuman C, Caluseriu O, Smith AC, Fei YL, Nishikawa J, Stockey TL, Best L, Chitayat D, Onley A, Ives E, Schneider A, Bestor TH, Li M, Sadowski P, Squire J. Discordant KCNQ1OT1 imprinting in sets of monozygotic twins discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 11:1317-1325, 2002.


Corea di Huntington


Kimchi-Sarfaty C, Oh JM, Kim IW, Sauna ZE, Calcagno AM, Ambudkar SV, Gottesman MM. A "silent" polymorphism in the MDR1 gene changes substrate specificity. Science 315:525-528, 2007.

Nackley AG, Shabalina SA, Tchivileva IE, Satterfield K, Korchynskyi O, Makarov SS, Maixner W, Diatchenko L. Human catechol-O-methyltransferase haplotypes modulate protein expression by altering mRNA secondary structure. Science 314:1930-1933, 2006.

Schweingruber C, Rufener SC, Zünd D, Yamashita A, Mühlemann O. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay - mechanisms of substrate mRNA recognition and degradation in mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1829:612-623, 2013.


Sindrome di Williams

Martens MA, Reutens DC, Wilson SJ. Auditory cortical volumes and musical ability in Williams syndrome. Neuropsychologia 48:2602-2609, 2010.



Cariotipo con trisomia 21

Età materna

Lejeune J. Complete collection of publications.

Progetto Genoma 21

Allen G, Benda CE, Böök JA, Carter CO, Ford CE, Chu EH, Hanhart E, Jervis G, Langdon-Down W, Lejeune J, Nishimura H, Oster J, Penrose LS, Polani PE, Potter EL, Stern C, Turpin R, Warkany J, Yannet H. Mongolism. Am J Hum Genet 13:426, 1961.

de la Torre R, de Sola S, Hernandez G, Farré M, Pujol J, Rodriguez J, Espadaler JM, Langohr K, Cuenca-Royo A, Principe A, Xicota L, Janel N, Catuara-Solarz S, Sanchez-Benavides G, Bléhaut H, Dueñas-Espín I, Del Hoyo L, Benejam B, Blanco-Hinojo L, Videla S, Fitó M, Delabar JM, Dierssen M; TESDAD study group. Safety and efficacy of cognitive training plus epigallocatechin-3-gallate in young adults with Down's syndrome (TESDAD): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol 2016.

Devlin L, Morrison PJ. Accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of Down syndrome. Ulster Med J 73:4-12, 2004.

Down JL. Observations on an ethnic classification of idiots. 1866. Ment Retard 33:54-56, 1995

Guidi S, Stagni F, Bianchi P, Ciani E, Giacomini A, De Franceschi M, Moldrich R, Kurniawan N, Mardon K, Giuliani A, Calzà L, Bartesaghi R. Prenatal pharmacotherapy rescues brain development in a Down's syndrome mouse model. Brain 137(Pt 2):380-401, 2014.

Hall B. Mongolism in newborn infants. An examination of the criteria for recognition and some speculations on
the pathogenic activity of the chromosomal abnormality. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 5:4-12, 1966.

Hook EB, JAMA 249:2034-2038, 1983 citato in:

Jackson JF, North ER 3rd., Thomas JG. Clinical diagnosis of Down’s syndrome. Clin Genet 9:483-487, 1976.

Lejeune J., Gauthier M., Turpin R. Human chromosomes in tissue cultures. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 248:602–603, 1959.

Letourneau A, Santoni FA, Bonilla X, Sailani MR, Gonzalez D, Kind J, Chevalier C, Thurman R, Sandstrom RS, Hibaoui Y, Garieri M, Popadin K, Falconnet E, Gagnebin M, Gehrig C, Vannier A, Guipponi M, Farinelli L, Robyr D, Migliavacca E, Borel C, Deutsch S, Feki A, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Herault Y, van Steensel B, Guigo R, Antonarakis SE. Domains of genome-wide gene expression dysregulation in Down's syndrome. Nature 508:345-350, 2014.

Niebuhr E. Down’s syndrome. The possibility of a pathogenetic segment on chromosome no. 21. Humangenetik 21:99-101, 1974.

O'Donnell CP, Pertile MD, Sheffield LJ, Sampson A. Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes: a case report. J Pediatr 145:406-408, 2004.

Pelleri MC, Cicchini E, Locatelli C, Vitale L, Caracausi M, Piovesan A, Rocca A, Poletti G, Seri M, Strippoli P, Cocchi G. Systematic reanalysis of partial trisomy 21 cases with or without Down syndrome suggests a small region on 21q22.13 as critical to the phenotype. Hum Mol Genet 2016.

Rastelli GC, Ongley PA, McGoon DC. Surgical repair of complete atrioventricular canal with anterior common leaflet undivided and unattached to ventricular septum. Mayo Clin Proc 44:335-341, 1969.

Strippoli P, Pelleri MC, Caracausi M, Vitale L, Piovesan A, Locatelli C, Mimmi MC, Berardi AC, Ricotta D, Radeghieri A, Barisani D, Basik M, Monaco MC, Ghezzo A, Seri M, Cocchi G. An integrated route to identifying new pathogenesis-based therapeutic approaches for trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) following the thought of Jérôme Lejeune. Sci Postprint 1, e00010, 2013.

Strippoli P. Trisomy 21: research for a cure and rediscovery of the thought of Jérôme Lejeune. J Med Pers 12:104-110, 2014.
[Article based on the talk at MedConference, Florham Park, NJ, 2013]


Gardner H. The theory of multiple intelligences. Ann Dyslexia 37:19-35, 1987.

Marmor M, Sheppard HW, Donnell D, Bozeman S, Celum C, Buchbinder S, Koblin B, Seage GR 3rd; HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Protocol Team. Homozygous and heterozygous CCR5-Delta32 genotypes are associated with resistance to HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 27:472-481, 2001.

McGuffin P, Huckle P. Simulation of Mendelism revisited: the recessive gene for attending medical school. Am J Hum Genet 46:994-999, 1990.

O'Donnell CP, Pertile MD, Sheffield LJ, Sampson A. Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes: a case report. J Pediatr 145:406-408, 2004.

Weksberg R, Shuman C, Caluseriu O, Smith AC, Fei YL, Nishikawa J, Stockley TL, Best L, Chitayat D, Olney A, Ives E, Schneider A, Bestor TH, Li M, Sadowski P, Squire J. Discordant KCNQ1OT1 imprinting in sets of monozygotic twins discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 11:1317-1325, 2002.


MC1R Gene

Cherkas LF, Oelsner EC, Mak YT, Valdes A, Spector TD. Genetic influences on female infidelity and number of sexual partners in humans: a linkage and association study of the role of the vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Twin Res 7:649-658, 2004.



Un caso interessante è quello delle poche centinaia di abitanti dell'isola di Tristan da Cunha (, discendenti da un piccolissimo gruppo di fondatori (

Metodi di sequenziamento automatico: aggiornamento 2016

Recentemente sono aumentate le pubblicazioni di sequenze di DNA ottenute su larga scala con sequenziatori automatici di nuova generazione che non utilizzano il tradizionale metodo di Sanger.
L'efficienza di questi strumenti è molto più elevata di quelli tradizionali e, seppure al momento la accuratezza può essere inferiore, si prospetta ora più concretamente un accesso al sequenziamento del genoma individuale come strumento di indagine.
Questa tecnologia potrebbe presto fornire una enorme quantità di dati sui genomi di singoli individui, in un contesto di conoscenze tuttavia ancora insufficienti a interpretarle.
Si consultino, ad esempio, i seguenti siti:

Personal Genome Project
1000 Genome
The 454 System
The ABI SOLiD System

Highfield R. Ripped genes. Daily Telegraph Magazine, 27 Maggio 2006.

Last updated June 02, 2017